The word sociology was used for the first time in the 19th century by August Comte. The term is a combination of two words, socio (meaning companion with others in Latin) and logos(study of reason in Greek) and was used to explain this new discipline in social sciences. In order to make scientific enquiries, sociology as a subject has been segmented into a number of areas which are explained in detail below.
Social organization focuses on social groups, bureaucracy, social inequality, religious groups as well as social mobility. The perfect examples of social institutions are schools and colleges. Instances of religious groups include Muslims, Christians and Buddhists. Bureaucracy is represented by government controlled organizations like municipal organizations and public sector undertakings. Social inequality is best represented by peasants, unskilled workers and delinquents.
Social psychology is concerned with study of the human mind and it lays emphasis on the social processes which have an impact on the thinking and output of a person. A persons emotion, ideas and thought process is shaped by his educational institution, cultural community as well as church. So, the major area of focus for researchers and academics is on the impact of the existing or imagined presence of others in the attitudes, beliefs and thoughts of an individual. It is an interdisciplinary subject and has influenced sociology as well as psychology.
Human ecology studies the behavior of a population and its relationship in context of its existing social institutions. For instance, latest research has shown the presence of social problems like prostitution, alcoholism, crime as well as delinquency in urban areas which have witnessed large scale development in recent years. So, in short human ecology is concerned with the relationship which exists between humans and the relationship between the natural as well as social institutions which have been built by them.
Population or Demography
It studies the total population, change, composition as well as quality and ways in which these parameters impact political, social as well as economic systems within the society.
Sociology is concerned with the scientific study of processes and problems existing within society. Applied sociology is the domain of sociology in which different types of sociological methods are applied to study all aspects of the society. The major areas of concern are the way people communicate with each other, the intermingling of different cultures as well as global issues.
All the above mentioned areas in sociology can be implemented in culture, issues related to crime and law as well as literature, education, environment as well as economics. Emerging disciplines like cultural studies, communication and media studies as well as demography and literary theory have been developed using methods which trace their roots back to sociology.