Framework of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS)

The rapid expansion of the city, urbanization, rural to urban migration, shifts in population have increased the commuting time, power (or fuel) consumption and air pollution. All these factors have decreased the efficiency of the transportation infrastructure in the country. Two traditional means of improving the roadway infrastructure of the country is by building new roadways and adding new roads in urban areas; both of which are not only difficult, but also expensive. Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) is the most cost-effective method of achieving this. The system involves advanced traffic signal controls, installation of speed meters, video surveillance cameras, and dynamic messaging signs etc. The primary benefit of the technology is its ease and speed of installation. Many small additions can be made over a period of time to make the infrastructure more smart and intelligent. The system is very cost-effective in the long run though the initial investment for the adoption of the technology may seem high initially. A big necessity of the technology is ensuring a non-stop, continuous, real-time transmission from cameras and ITS components. The components also have to be scalable and must be capable of being deployed in all types of terrains. The components of the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) are the Interface Boards, Sensors, Software, Surveillance, Telecommunication, monitoring detection system, handheld devices, Human Machine Interface (HMI) Units and Inductive loops cable. Each of these components has different variations that can be used. The technology that serves multiple functions by ensuring better mobility, safety, and sustainability is based on the Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS), Advanced Traveller Information System (ATIS), Commercial Vehicle Operation (COV), Advanced Public Transportation System, ITS-Enabled Transportation System (APTS). ATIS can be segmented as Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) and Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) on the basis of the adopted communication type. Intelligent vehicles include services for Collision Notification System, Collision Avoidance System and Driver Assistance Systems. The Intelligent Navigation technology varies from the basic features of car navigation, traffic signal controls, number plate recognition, and speed cameras to complex features like weather information, parking information and guidance etc. The wireless technology incorporated is a primary component since the very feature that characterizes the market is the use of wireless modes of communication like Radio Modem (UHF and VHF). The microcontroller or the Programmable Logic Controller works with real –time operating systems. New platforms have more refined applications that include Artificial Intelligence (AI), ubiquitous computing, process control etc. The ‘floating’ data (cellular data)is a simple economical method of obtaining time and speed data. The most popular methods are the Triangulation Methods, Vehicular re-identification and GPS-based methods. The floating car data ensures lesser costs than sensors/cameras, more locational coverage, faster set-up time, lower costs of maintenance and most importantly, works irrespective of weather conditions. The ITS packages performs diverse functions such as Traffic Management, Public Transportation, Traveller Information, vehicular safety, emergency management system and archived data management. The components help the ITS in delivering complex activities. It has made the once-laborious activities of gathering information, communicating, taking efficient and informed decisions-making transportation faster, more convenient and effective