It seems natural today to grow up in a country and call it home. Yet countries, as we know them, were formed fairly late in man’s long history.
In early times, the hunter provided his family. Families that were related often joined together to get their foods and to defend themselves against their enemies, both animals and humans. This small group grew until it included all the kin, or those who grew with some kind of family relationship. This is the way tribes and clans were formed.
Stronger tribes imposed their will of weaker tribes, and kingdoms came into being. There were now a hundred of tribes who obeyed one chief or king. These in turns expanded into a collection of kingdoms, and so countries were born. By this time, many nations included peoples who were not kin. That is, nations were made up of groups of people who often spoke different kinds of languages and whose habits and customs varied greatly. In Great Britain, this is shown by the Welsh, who are descendants of Britons who retreated before the conquering Romans to the western side of Britain. The Welsh have a different language and culture from the English, but they still help to make up the British nation. The same may be said about the Scott and some of the Irish.
A PARLIAMENT OF NATION
Each individual in the world has his or her own need. So, too, does each country. All too frequently in history have gone to war because their needs have conflicted with the needs of other countries. Because of the two world wars in the century, the idea grew that the only way to have a peace was to have some kind of parliament for all the nations of the world.
At the end of the World War l, an organization called a League of Nations tried to achieve this aim. In the end, however, the League failed to keep the peace. This was because some important countries ignored it, and some nations tried to use the organization for their own self-interests before the countries began. The failure of the League was one of the reasons for the outbreak of the Word War ll. After this war, people still felt that a world parliament was needed, so a new and bigger league of nations was formed. This time the organization was called the United Nations.
The United Nations tries to bring about co-operation in dealing with economics and social problems. But it’s the most important job is keeping the peace between the countries of the world.
THE COUNTRIES OF THE WORLD
Whether they are workers in the crowded city or Eskimo hunters in empty Arctic spaces, people generally want to leave with near to other people. They live together in families and in districts. They live together in districts and sounds. And, at a still higher level, people are grouped together in countries or nations.
Today there are more than 150 independent countries. But this was not always the case. At the beginning of this century there were only 63 independent countries; in 1940 there were only 71. The great increase came about the World War ll, when many African and Asian colonies became independent.
The countries of the world are as varied and as interesting as it can be. The largest, the Soviet Union, sprawls across parts of two continents, and Australia has a continent all to itself. The smallest, Vatican City, is less than one-fifth of a square mile. There are great differences in population, too. Less than 1,000 people live in Vatican City. In China, there are more than 975,000,000 people.
Yet, large or small, peopled by hundreds of millions or only thousands, each country adds to the richness and variety of our world.
This article is for all ages that they must have access to the fullest possible information about the countries of the world and about the people who live in them. This article presents the history, geography and economy to every country. By emphasizing similarities, as well as differences, this article promotes the recognition of the interdependence of the peoples and nations around the world.
Reference 1: A PARLIAMENT OF NATION
References 2: THE COUNTRIES AND THE WORLD