How thyroid disorders affect fertility?
A thyroid disorder can reduce fertility and harm the health of the mother and baby. Early diagnosis and proper treatment, the keys to a healthy pregnancy.
ELembarazo is very significant in the life of every woman so it is essential to take all necessary precautions to stay healthy and fully enjoy this moment now. It is necessary that mothers pay attention to thyroid dysfunctions as commonly develop in women of childbearing age.
What is the thyroid? A gland in the neck, produces hormones that influence almost every cell, tissue, and organ, and is regulated by the pituitary gland (located in the brain). Its activity controls metabolism and affects critical functions of the body, including the regularity of the menstrual cycle, pregnancy and normal metabolism developing baby.
Incidence in pregnancy
Thyroid disorders tend to occur in women of reproductive age and may be declared at any stage of pregnancy due to hormonal changes of condition.
When the onset is earlier, both hypothyroidism (decreased the production of thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine T3 T4) and hyperthyroidism ( an excessive function that makes hormones secreted by others) produce an alteration in the balance of female hormones and in ovulatory function, which can reduce fertility, preventing conception.
In turn, these conditions may impair the maintenance of pregnancy: as the Latin American Thyroid Society, between 40 and 60% of spontaneous abortions are untreated thyroid disorders.
Hypothyroidism usually develops in about 5% of pregnancies and its most common cause is the “Hashimoto”, an autoimmune condition in which the body creates antibodies that attack the thyroid gland. Their presence may increase the risk of suffering an abortion, especially during the first trimester.
Furthermore, hyperthyroidism usually generated by the “Graves disease” autoimmune condition whereby an antibody that stimulates the thyroid is generated. It can cause difficulty getting pregnant and pregnancy loss.
A correct diagnosis
To diagnose the problem early is important to know the symptoms since they are often confused with those of other diseases of pregnancy such as fatigue, weakness, constipation, and depression. For this reason, it is essential to be vigilant and to consult a specialist before the occurrence of the following indications:
– Cold intolerance.
– Fatigue and sleep.
– Weight gain.
– Hair fall.
– Heat intolerance.
– Weight loss.
– Thin, brittle hair.
For those mothers who are in treatment, it is advisable to tighten control mainly during the first quarter to minimize the risks. Also, it is recommended that analysis of thyroid hormones in the following cases undiagnosed:
– If you develop symptoms of hypo / hyperthyroidism.
– If I had premature births or pregnancy loss.
– If there is a personal or family history of thyroid disorder.
– If you have suffered or type 1 diabetes or autoimmune disease.
To detect malfunctions of the gland, the endocrinologist specialist will request a simple blood test that will assess the hormonal values of the patient and will feel the neck check its size. To observe any irregularity, the diagnosis may be complemented by a neck ultrasound.
How do I treat it?
Treatment depends on the type of disorder. Levothyroxine is a synthetic thyroid hormone and is used to counteract the effects of hypothyroidism. Once supplied should never suspend and recommend that the patient control blood levels of thyroid hormones are made, as it is generally necessary to increase the dose of medication progressively throughout pregnancy.
As for hyperthyroidism, you should treat it before the mother pregnant and decides definitively. You can include the use of antithyroid drugs, radioactive iodine, which has the ability to undo the thyroid and stop the excessive production of hormones- and may even resort to surgery to remove the thyroid if the case so requires. If the patient has already hyperthyroid and drugs that are indicated are in the lowest possible dose, since they cross the placenta becomes pregnant. Although it is stated that the respective drugs are by no means a threat to pregnancy but quite the opposite: they help their normal evolution.
If a mom knows that you have some type of thyroid dysfunction it is ideal to control your thyroid before becoming pregnant. If declared or detected later, it is important to consult the endocrinologist in haste to set the indicated treatments and thus have a healthy pregnancy for the mother and baby.
By Dr. Laura Maffei, director of medical center Doctor Laura Maffei.