Ayer’s Rock in central Australia is one big chunk of rock 335m (1,099ft) high. It is much larger than all the other boulders in the surrounding desert, but not as large as Mount Augustus in Western Australia, another big rock, 1,105m (3,625ft) high.
The oldest rocks in the world are in Western Australia. They date from 4,300 million years ago, only 300 million years after the Earth was formed.
Image By NASA ASTER (volcano archive jpl) and Mison (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons
The people who live on Tristan da Cunha are over 2,000km (1,300 miles) from their nearest neighbours on the island of St Helena. That’s nearly as far as Moscow is from London. Tristan da Cunha is in the South Atlantic Ocean nearly 3,000km (1,864 miles) from the southern tip of Africa. Tristan da Cunha has an active volcano and in 1961 all the islanders had to leave before they were swamped with lava. It was twin years before 198 of them returned to the island.
By Worldtraveller at en.wikipedia [GFDL or CC-BY-SA-3.0 ], from Wikimedia Commons
An island from nowhere in 1963 the sea to the south west of Iceland began to boil and bubble. Slowly the island of Surtsey rose through the water. It was made of molten java from a volcano. The java cooled and plant seeds blown across the sea soon began to grow there.
Islands made of shells
Coral reefs are made up of the skeleton of millions of tiny animals. Sometimes the reef forms a circle, or atoll, with sea water in the middle.
By Chrissy from Chicago, US (Angmassalik @ Night) [CC-BY-2.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons
Greenland is the world’s largest island. Greenland is just over 2,000,000 sq. km (1,242,800 sq. Miles), nearly ten times as large as Great Britain. It is covered with had and snow.
New Guinea, Borneo and Madagascar are the next three biggest islands, but they could all fit into Greenland.
About Rivers and Lakes
The largest freshwater lake in the world is Lake Superior in Canada. It is just over 80,000 sq. km (30,888 sq. miles), bigger than the whole of Holland and Belgium put together. The Caspian Sea is even larger – nearly five times larger than Lake Superior – but its waters as salty.
Image By Kevstan (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ) or GFDL ], via Wikimedia Commons
Like Malawi takes up one quarter of the whole country of Malawi.
Lake Baikal in central Siberia is the deepest lake in the world. It is 1940 metres deep, more than twice as deep as the North Sea. Canary Wharf is Europe’s tallest office building, but Lake Baikal is eight times as deep as it is tall.
Lake Baikal has more water in it than any other lake – 23,000 cubic km of it. It could drown the whole Great Britain up to a depth of about 100m (328ft). Only buildings more than 30 storeys high would show above the surface of water.
By Octagon (Own work) [CC-BY-3.0], via Wikimedia Commons
The world’s longest sites is the Nile. It flows from central Africa 6,670km (4,145 miles) north to the Mediterranean Sea. If all the bends were straightened out it would reach about one third of the distance from the North Pole to the South Pole.
The longest river in the United Kingdom is the River Severn. At only 354km (220 miles) long it is a mere stream compared with the world’s greatest rivers.
The muddiest river in the world is the Hwang Ho in China. It carries so much silt you could build a vast wall 40m (131ft) high and 6m (20ft) wide all around the world.
By Jucember (Own work) [CC-BY-SA-3.0 ], via Wikimedia Commons